The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Hugo Boss Men's Storm Textile Running SneakerThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Wolverine Men's W03123 DuraShock SR-MJohnston & Murphy Men's Shuler Bicycle Toe Oxford ASICS Court FF 2 Men's Running shoesKEEN Men's Summit County Waterproof Winter Bootgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, bluendstone Unisex Super 550 Series Boot,Walnut 9 M US Women 7 M US Menand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Jordan Air 1 Retro High FlyknitWolverine Men's Legend 6 Inch Waterproof Comp Toe Work shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Xero shoes Coalton - Men's Chukka Style, Barefoot-Inspired Minimalist, Zero-Drop Low Leather BootNike Air Max Speed Turf Men's Sneakers Deion AV7895 001Rocky Men's FQ0006717 Western BootNike Lebron Soldier IX Mens Basketball shoes Size 10 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Ariat Work Men's WORKHOG CSA H2O 600G Composite Toe Boot), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Mammut Men's Lunan GTX Low Rise Hiking Boots), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Georgia Boot Men's 12 Wedge Wellington Work Bootand ECCO Men's Kinhin Fashion Sneaker). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Justin Boots Men's J-Max Round-toe Work BootCorcoran Men's 10 Inch Jump Boot-Mduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Nautica Men's Deckloom Sneaker, Brown Smooth, 7.5 Medium USNIKE Men's Kawa Adjustable Slide Sandals Black Black 13Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? LALO Men's Shadow Intruder 8 Lightweight Tactical BootARIAT Men's Circuit Wildhorse Western BootAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Nike Zoom Rookie Mens Style BQ3379-002 Size 9.5Donald J Pliner Men's Darrin3-k Loafer.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Rocky TMC Postal Approved Sport Chukka BootsCHAMARIPA Genuine Leather Elevator Sneakers Mens High Heel Sneakers 6 cm 2.36 Inches Taller shoes H82V33 Muck Boots Chore Met Guard Extreme Tall Men's Rubber Insulated Work BootAriat Men's Overdrive 8 Wide Square Toe Composite Toe Work BootThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Jump Newyork Men's Chopper Black Studs 8 Eye Motorcycle Boot with Metal Heel and SoleNike Mens Air Vapormax 2019 Running shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Hugo Boss Men's Orland_Lowp_Sdny2 SneakerDurango Men's Ddb0077 Western Boot There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeDanner Men's Black Belt Industrial BootStacy Adams Men's Madison Ii-69 Chukka Boot.ECCO Men's Turn Gore-tex Tie Chukka BootLa Sportiva Trango TRK GTX Hiking shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, NIKE Mens Jordan Generation 23, Black Black-White-Metallic gold, 11.5 D(M) USJordan Nike Men's Air XXXI Low White University Red Black Basketball shoes 11.5 Men UStherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (On Running Mens Cloudswift Mesh Trainers).Men's J-Toe Genuine Leather EEL Skin Western BootsNike Hyperdunk X Low Tb Mens Ar0463-601 Size 13 However,Salewa MTN Trooper L Boot - Men'sSalewa Mountain Trainer Mid Gore-TEX Boots Mens I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Muck Boot Men's Summit Lace 8 Rain Boot

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