The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Smoke Lake Scarpa Mens Mistral GTX Walking shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Black Team orange-photo bluee Jordan Men's Pro Strong Basketball shoesIndigo TCG Mens Men Apache Crepe High Top Sneaker Rubber Sole Sneaker Cloud White Real Purple Real Teal adidas Men's Twinstrike Adv Originals Running shoesWhite, gym red-black Nike Men's Air Jordan 8 Retro White Black Red 305381-142generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Black Suede Blondo Womens Erika Waterproof Fashion Bootand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. bluee Jewel Black Giro Riddance Cycling shoes - Men'sBlack Rachel Zoe Womens Skylar Pump PumpWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Black silver Mizuno Mens Wave Prophecy 7 Men's Running shoes Running shoesBlack bluee Nightlife Brooks Men's Adrenaline GTS 19 B Width Running shoesWhite, white-pure platinum Nike Women's Air Max Run Lite 5 Running shoesBlack Badgley Mischka Women's Geranium Heeled Sandal I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Wave bluee Hunter Boots Women's Original Short Nebula Rain Boot), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Dark Forest Black Yellow ASICS Men's Gel-Kayano 24), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Walnut Forsake Phil Chukka - Men's Casual Leather Mid-Topand White , white-light grey adidas Performance Men's Ultra Boost M Running shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Burgundy-2 Lethato Wingtip Oxford Goodyear Welted Formal Handmade Leather Dress shoesCognac Sperry Men's gold W ASV Boat shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Dark Brown Old Town Frye Women's Harness 12R BootOily Distressed Brown Ariat Mens Work Boot Construction BootLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Black Mezlan Mens Sharif Oxford- Nike AIR MAX Deluxe - AJ7831-300And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?White adidas Performance Men's Ultra Boost M Running shoesBrown Red Danner Men's Mountain 600 4.5 Hiking Boot.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Black Leather Cole Haan Men's Original Grand Venetian Slip-On LoaferSilver Badgley Mischka Womens Hampden Flat Sandal Black Bruno Magli Mens Francesco OxfordNavy Vacchetta Diamante The Flexx Womens Chapter Slip-OnThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: White Grey Croc Dexter Men's T.H.E 9 Bowling shoesRedwood Extended Frye Women's Melissa Belted Tall Knee Highfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Active Red Solar Red Core Black Adidas Mens Predator 19.1 FG SoccerWhite White Crystal White Adidas Performance Women's Ultraboost There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeGrey Suede Ted Baker Womens Lykla Over The Knee BootBlack Danner Mens Stalwart 8 Black Military & Tactical Boot.- Nike AIR Jordan 1 MID - 554724-121Silver bluee New Balance Men's M1540V2 Running At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Mahogany Chocolate Palladium Mens Pampa Sport Cuff WPS Rain BootDark bluee Black New Balance Men's 990v4therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Bordo Bruno Magli Mens Forest Oxford).Rainbow Baby pink Ash Women's AS-Lucky SneakerCgreen orange Cgreen adidas Men's D Lillard 2 Basketball shoes However,Cordovan Vivobarefoot Womens Magna Trail Textile Synthetic TrainersWhite, black-aluminum Nike Men's Dual Fusion Run 3 Premium Running shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.BROWN Men's Rockport, Edge Hill II Walking Sneakers

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